All African American men between the ages of 14-24 are free from arrest, detainment and incarceration
Focus Area Leads:
James Wilson (Circle Up Indy)
Gina Fears (Edna Martin Christian Center)
Partners: (List coming in 2016)
While Strategies 1 and 2 are very important and support our long-term vision for community change, we recognize that our primary strategy for reducing juvenile detainment and recidivism is to keep young Black men in the school-to-employment pipeline. This includes creating alternatives for out-of-school suspensions or, if in custody, ensuring that a rigorous education continues. (See Education Focus Area plan for details.)
Strategy #1:Improve outcomes for young Black men in diversionary programs and create an effective, evidence-based system of support for juvenile offenders and their families
Co-Strategy Chairs: Brandon Randall (Indianapolis Public Schools)
Strategy #2:Create an effective, evidence-based system of care coordination, support, employment services and comprehensive wellness services for Black men ages 18-24 returning to the community after incarceration
Strategy Chairs: Rhiannon T. Edwards (PACE, Inc.)
Strategy #3: Build a strong system for violence and arrest prevention through expanded use of Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) or another national intervention model
Co-Strategy Chairs: Erin Busk (Boys and Girls Club of Indianapolis)
Anthony Beverly (Stop the Violence, Inc.)
**JDAI is a bipartisan movement to reallocate government resources away from mass incarceration and toward investments in youth, families and communities, led by Annie E. Casey Foundation.
The model includes eight core strategies:
- Promote collaboration between juvenile court officials, probation agencies, prosecutors, defense attorneys, schools, community organizations and advocates;
- Use rigorous data collection and analysis to guide decision making;
- Use objective admissions criteria and risk-assessment instruments to replace subjective decision-making processes to determine whether youth should be placed into secure detainment facilities;
- Implement new or expanded alternatives to detainment programs – such as day and evening reporting centers, home confinement and shelter care – that can be used in lieu of locked detainment;
- Institute case processing reforms to expedite the flow of cases through the system;
- Reduce the number of youth detained for probation rule violations or failing to appear in court, and the number held in detainment awaiting transfers to a residential facility;
- Combat racial and ethnic disparities by examining data to identify policies and practices that may disadvantage youth of color at various stages of the process and pursue strategies to ensure a more level playing field for youth regardless of race or ethnicity;
- Monitor and improve conditions of confinement in detainment facilities.
Addressing These FIVE BIG OUTCOMES
- Increased high school graduation among Black boys at all Marion County schools
- Decreased relative risk of referral to juvenile court for Black boys ages 14-17 in Marion County
- Decreased rate of return to IDOC within 12 months among Black males ages 14-24
- Decreased death by homicide among Black males ages 15-24
- Number of community-based diversion partners
- Number of Black boys ages 14-17 receiving community placements over institutionalization
- Percent of Black boys ages 14-17 with delinquency referrals
- Percent of Black boys ages 14-17 admitted to juvenile detention
- Number of Black boys ages 14-17 in daily count in juvenile detention center (avg daily)
- Juvenile Detainment recidivism among Black boys ages 13-15
- Number of adjudicated Black boys ages 14-17 who report having a relationship with a caring adult who gives wise advice, listens and provides a consistent and positive presence
- Number of Black boys ages 14-17 who are connected to formal support services before and after reentry (can disaggregate by service type)
- Number of young Black men ages 16-18 reentering community after incarceration or detainment who secure a part-time job of at least 10 hours a week at minimum wage or higher
- Number of formerly incarcerated boys who graduate from high school by age 20
- Number of formerly incarcerated boys who secure an industry certification or enroll in postsecondary education by age 20
- Number of incarcerated or formerly incarcerated men who receive a high school diploma by age 24
- Number of formerly incarcerated men who secure an industry certification or enroll in postsecondary education by age 25
- Number of Black men ages 18-24 who re-enter the community after incarceration or detainment and secure a full-time position with wages greater than $10 an hour plus benefits
- Number of Black men ages 18-24 who are connected to formal support services before and after reentry (can disaggregate by service type), including men with sentences under 12 months
- Number of Black men ages 18-24 with a history of incarceration who report having a relationship with a caring older adult who gives wise advice, listens and provides a positive, consistent presence
- Decreased Juvenile Detainment recidivism among Black boys ages 13-15
- Percent of Black boys ages 14-17 admitted to juvenile detention
- Number of Black boys ages 14-17 engaged in formal positive activities with police
- Number of Black men ages 18-24 engaged in formal positive activities with police
- Percent of Black boys ages 14-17 in highest-arrest neighborhoods reporting positive perception of police
- Number of Black men ages 14-24 served by a CIT
- Number of police officers and others trained in CIT for Youth
KEY RELEVANT BASELINE DATA: Justice and Reentry
NOTE: most is not disaggregated for ages 14-24
- In 2012, African Americans (all ages/genders) were only 9.5% of the Hoosier population. However, that same year,
- Black men made up 37% of the Indiana Department of Correction (IDOC) population, a total of 9,336 men.
- Black men were six times more likely to be incarcerated than White men
- The average annual cost for an incarcerated offender is $25,000.
- Unemployment and low education are strong predictors of recidivism. The current 3-year recidivism rate for ages 16-24 is 41.8% Without even a high school diploma, 45% return to jail. Without a job, 60% return.
- Prisoners with a sentence of less than 12 months typically receive significantly fewer educational, addiction or mental health services than those with longer sentences.
- The most effective way to support young men exiting incarceration or with a history of incarceration is a person-center care approach that begins with a comprehensive assessment of personal needs and strengths. That care plan:
- Is driven by the young man
- Uses a wraparound approach
- Is community-based, culturally responsive and engages evidence-based services
- Regarding local re-entry:
- In 2009 alone, 1340 African American men (all ages) were released to Marion County.
- Indianapolis does not have a strong re-entry system to address barriers for re-establishment – transportation, housing, jobs, accrued debt, addictions and mental health needs, education.
- Re-entry preparation (procedures, system, individualized debt-reduction plans and supports) during incarceration is weak.
- The implementation of HEA 1006 is predicted to dramatically increase the number of African American ex-offenders being released to Marion County.
- Most ex-offenders leave the system with three days of medication, no medical or mental health referral, no job, no health insurance, no ID and with accrued debts/fees including child support
- According to the Hoosier Initiative for Re-entry webpage (State of Indiana):
- Financial incentives exist to hire ex-offenders, up to $9600 in tax credits per employee
- A federal bond is available to employers, with no deductible and lasting the first six months of employment
- Despite these incentives, over 71% of local employers refuse to hire ex-offenders
- Ex-offenders are very productive, “overwhelmingly dependable and punctual” and loyal, grateful for the second chance. Employee turnover is atypically low.
- More than 70% of ex-offenders are parents. When older, their children are most likely to have the least outcome, attain similar education levels and more likely to commit crimes than ex-offender children
- If employers collectively hired 500 ex-offenders, it could save the State (Hoosiers) approximately $4 million a year.
- The US Department of Justice describes an ideal relationship between police and youth as: “a positive partnership that includes police, youth, parents, school, community and business leadership, clergy and the media all aimed at both preventing and resolving problems of crime…based on cooperation, collaboration and mutual respect.”
There is good news in Marion County as it relates to juvenile justice.
- In 2006, Marion County joined the Juvenile Detainment Alternatives Initiative (JDAI), the first site in Indiana. In Marion County, JDAI is working on day/eveningreporting, curfew enhancements, home counseling and programs for lower offense. By 2014,
- admissions to detainment dropped by 68%
- average daily populations in secured detainment dropped by 48%
- delinquency referrals dropped by 47%
But, despite these remarkable eight-year juvenile justice gains, some things are not improving.
- Black youth are referred to Juvenile Court at a rate of 3-to-1 compared to White youth
- In 2013, 70% of the average daily population in the Juvenile Detainment Center were Black youth
- In 2012, the 12-month recidivism rate for young African American men ages 16-24 was 41.8%, the highest rate in six years. Since 2007, the lowest recidivismrate was in 2009 (32.7%)
- And possibly most disturbing, by 2013, 42% of Black youth ages 13-15 released from IDOC in 2010 had returned to IDOC
Find more compelling baseline data about justice and re-entry, plus the benefits of education and employment for improved outcomes, in the 2014 Task Force Report to the Mayor.
Open Data Sources
PROMISING PRACTICES and National News
Visit the National Reentry Resource Center for best practices in juvenile justice reentry, reducing recidivism, a what works clearinghouse, ideas for using a public health approach to reducing incarcerations, and stories of business leaders in several cities that are creating initiatives to hire formerly incarcerated residents.
The Bexar County (Texas) Jail Diversion program is one of 16 federally-funded National DiversionPrograms that shows great promise. It has since been implemented throughout Texas, in 17 states and globally. Since it began in 2003, the local jail went from overcrowded conditions to 500 empty beds. It has diverted 17,000 people from jail and emergency rooms. It has trained over 2600 police officers in Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) methods. In its first year alone, 1000 people with mental health issues were diverted. It now annually saves the County $5 million in jail costs and local hospitals $4 million in inappropriate emergency admissions. To help communities create their own, click here for their Toolkit.
For other current research, evidence-based practices and resources on mentoring young Black men, Black male achievement and related topics, visit the OpportunINDY “Related News & Reports” page.